Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Language of science

August 19, 2021

Language of science

Before reading the chapter, say each of these terms out loud. This will help you to avoid stumbling over them as you read.

acetylcholine (ACh)

(as-ee-til-KOH-leen [ay see aych])

[acetyl- vinegar, -chole- bile, -ine made of]

 

action potential

(AK-shun poh-TEN-shal)

[act- moving, -ion condition, poten- power, -ial relating to]

 

adrenergic fiber

(ad-ren-ER-jik FYE-ber)

[ad- toward, -ren- kidney, -erg- work, -ic relating to, fibr- thread]

 

afferent neuron

(AF-fer-ent NOO-ron)

[a[d]- toward, -fer- carry, -ent relating to, neur- string or nerve, -on unit]

 

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

(an-tee-dye-yoo-RET-ik HOR-mohn [ay dee aych])

[anti- against, -dia- through, -uret- urination, -ic relating to, hormon- excite]

 

arachnoid mater

(ah-RAK-noyd MAH-ter)

[arachn- spider(web), -oid like, mater mother]

 

astrocyte

(AS-troh-syte)

[astro- star shaped, -cyte cell]

 

autonomic effector

(aw-toh-NOM-ik ef-FEK-tor)

[auto- self, -nom- rule, -ic relating to, effect- accomplish, -or agent]

 

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

(aw-toh-NAHM-ik NER-vus SIS-tem [ay en es])

[auto- self, -nom- rule, -ic relating to, nerv- nerve, -ous, relating to]

 

autonomic neuron

(aw-toh-NOM-ik NOO-ron)

[auto- self, -nom- rule, -ic relating to, neuron nerve]

 

axon

(AK-son)

[axon axle]

 

basal nuclei (basal ganglia)

(BAY-sal NOO-klee-aye [GANG-glee-ah])

sing., basal nucleus or ganglion

(BAY-sal NOO-klee-us [GANG-glee-un])

[bas- foundation, -al relating to, nucle- nut or kernel (ganglion knot)]

 

blood-brain barrier (BBB)

(blud brayn BAYR-ee-er [bee bee bee])

 

catecholamine

(kat-eh-KOHL-ah-meen)

[catech- melt, -ol- alcohol, -amine ammonia compound]

 

cell body

(sell BOD-ee)

[cell storeroom]

 

central nervous system (CNS)

(SEN-tral NER-vus SIS-tem [see en es])

[centr- center, -al relating to, nerv- nerve, -ous relating to]

 

cerebellum

(sayr-eh-BEL-um)

pl., cerebella or cerebellums

(sayr-eh-BEL-ah or sayr-eh-BEL-umz)

[cereb- brain, -ell- small, -um thing]

 

cerebral cortex

(seh-REE-bral KOR-teks)

[cerebr- brain (cerebrum), -al relating to, cortex bark]

 

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

(seh-ree-broh-SPY-nal FLOO-id [see es ef])

[cerebr- brain, -spin- backbone, -al relating to]

 

cerebrum

(SAYR-eh-brum)

[cerebrum brain]

 

cholinergic fiber

(koh-lin-ER-jik FYE-ber)

[chole- bile, -erg- work, -ic relating to, fibr- thread]

 

choroid plexus

(KOH-royd PLEK-sus)

pl., choroid plexuses

(KOH-royd PLEK-sus-ez)

[chorio- skin, -oid like, plexus braid or network]

 

corpus callosum

(KOHR-pus kah-LOH-sum)

pl., corpora callosa

(KOHR-por-ah kah-LOH-sah)

[corpus body, callosum callous or tough]

 

cranial nerve (CN)

(KRAY-nee-al nerv [see en])

[crani- skull, -al relating to, nerv- string or nerve]

 

dendrite

(DEN-dryte)

[dendr- tree, -ite part (branch)]

 

dermatome

(DER-mah-tohm)

[derma- skin, -tome cut (segment)]

 

diencephalon

(dye-en-SEF-ah-lon)

[di- between, -en- within, -cephalon head]

 

dopamine

(DOH-pah-meen)

[dopa- amino acid, -amine ammonia]

 

dura mater

(DOO-rah MAH-ter)

[dura hard, mater mother]

 

effector

(ef-FEK-tor)

[effect- accomplish, -or agent]

 

efferent neuron

(EF-fer-ent NOO-ron)

[e- away, -fer- carry, -ent relating to, neur- string or nerve, -on unit]

 

endoneurium

(en-doh-NOO-ree-um)

[endo- inward, -neuri- nerve, -um thing]

 

endorphin

(en-DOR-fin)

[endo- within, -(m)orph- Morpheus (Roman god of dreams), -in substance]

 

enkephalin

(en-KEF-ah-lin)

[en- within, -kephalo- head, -in substance]

 

epineurium

(ep-ih-NOO-ree-um)

[epi- upon, -neuri- nerve, -um thing]

 

fascicle

(FAS-ih-kul)

[fasci- band or bundle, -cle small]

 

fight-or-flight response

(fyte or flyte ree-SPAHNS)

 

ganglion

(GANG-lee-on)

pl., ganglia

(GANG-lee-ah)

[gangli- knot, -on unit]

 

glia

(GLEE-ah)

sing., glial cell

(GLEE-al sel)

[glia glue]

 

gray matter

(gray MAT-ter)

 

gyri

(JYE-rye)

sing., gyrus

(JYE-rus)

[gyrus circle]

 

hypothalamus

(hye-poh-THAL-ah-mus)

[hypo- under or below, -thalamus inner chamber]

 

interneuron

(in-ter-NOO-ron)

[inter- between, -neuron nerve]

 

limbic system

(LIM-bik SIS-tem)

[limb- edge, -ic relating to]

 

medulla oblongata

(meh-DUL-ah ob-long-GAH-tah)

[medulla marrow or pith, oblongata oblong]

 

meninges

(meh-NIN-jeez)

sing., meninx

(meh-NINKS)

[meninx membrane]

 

microglia

(my-KROG-lee-ah)

sing., microglial cell

(my-KROG-lee-al sel)

[micro- small, -glia glue]

 

midbrain

(MID-brayn)

[mid- middle, -brain skull]

 

motor neuron

(MOH-ter NOO-ron)

[mot- movement, -or agent, neuron nerve]

 

myelin

(MY-eh-lin)

[myel- marrow, -in substance]

 

myelinated fiber

(MY-eh-lih-nay-ted FYE-ber)

[myel- marrow, -in- substance, -ate act of, fibr- thread]

 

nerve

(nerv)

[nerv- string or nerve]

 

neurilemma

(noo-rih-LEM-mah)

[neuri- neuron, -lemma sheath]

 

neuroglia

(noo-ROH-glee-ah or noo-roh-GLEE-ah)

sing., neuroglial cell

(noo-ROH-glee-al sel)

[neur- nerve, -glia glue]

 

neuron

(NOO-ron)

[neur- string or nerve, -on unit]

 

neurotransmitter

(noo-roh-trans-MIT-ter)

[neuro- nerve, -trans- across, -mitt- send, -er agent]

 

nitric oxide (NO)

(NYE-trik AWK-side [en oh])

[nitr- nitrogen, -ic relating to, ox- oxygen, -ide chemical]

 

node of Ranvier

(nohd ov rahn-vee-AY)

[nod- knot, Louis A. Ranvier French pathologist]

 

norepinephrine (NE)

(nor-ep-ih-NEF-rin [en ee])

[nor- chemical prefix (unbranched C chain), -epi- upon, -nephr- kidney, -ine substance]

 

oligodendrocyte

(ohl-ih-goh-DEN-droh-syte)

[oligo- few, -dendr- part (branch) of, -cyte cell]

 

parasympathetic division

(payr-ah-sim-pah-THET-ik dih-VIZH-un)

[para- beside, -sym- together, -pathe- feel, -ic relating to]

 

parasympathetic postganglionic neuron

(payr-ah-sim-pah-THET-ik post-gang-glee-ON-ik NOO-ron)

[para- beside, -sym- together, -pathe- feel, -ic relating to, post- after, -ganglion- knot, -ic relating to, neur- string or nerve, -on unit]

 

parasympathetic preganglionic neuron

(payr-ah-sim-pah-THET-ik pree-gang-glee-ON-ik NOO-ron)

[para- beside, -sym- together, -pathe- feel, -ic relating to, pre- before, -ganglion- knot, -ic relating to, neur- string or nerve, -on unit]

 

perineurium

(payr-ih-NOO-ree-um)

[peri- around, -neur- nerve, -um thing]

 

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

(peh-RIF-er-al NER-vus SIS-tem [pee en es])

[peri- around, -phera- boundary, -al relating to, nerv- nerve, -ous relating to, system organized whole]

 

pia mater

(PEE-ah MAH-ter)

[pia tender, mater mother]

 

pineal gland

(PIN-ee-al gland)

[pine- pine, -al relating to, gland acorn]

 

plexus

(PLEK-sus)

[plexus braid or network]

pl., plexuses

(PLEK-sus-ez)

 

pons

(ponz)

[pons bridge]

 

postganglionic neuron

(post-gang-glee-ON-ik NOO-ron)

[post- after, -ganglion- knot, -ic relating to, neuron nerve]

 

postsynaptic neuron

(post-sih-NAP-tik NOO-ron)

[post- after, -syn- together, -apt- join, -ic relating to, neuron nerve]

 

preganglionic neuron

(pree-gang-glee-ON-ik NOO-ron)

[pre- before, -ganglion- knot, -ic relating to, neuron nerve]

 

presynaptic neuron

(pree-sih-NAP-tik NOO-ron)

[pre- before, -syn- together, -apt- join, -ic relating to, neuron nerve]

 

receptor

(ree-SEP-tor)

[recept- receive, -or agent]

 

reflex

(REE-fleks)

[re- again, -flex bend]

 

reflex arc

(REE-fleks ark)

[re- back or again, -flex bend, arc curve]

 

reticular formation

(reh-TIK-yoo-lar for-MAY-shun)

[ret- net, -ic- relating to, -ul- little, -ar characterized by, form- shape, -ation state]

 

saltatory conduction

(SAL-tah-tor-ee kon-DUK-shun)

[salta- leap, -ory relating to, con- with, -duct- lead, -ion process]

 

Schwann cell

(shwon or shvon sell)

[Theodor Schwann German anatomist, cell storeroom]

 

sensory neuron

(SEN-sor-ee NOO-ron)

[sens- feel, -ory relating to, neur- string or nerve, -on unit]

 

serotonin

(sayr-oh-TOH-nin)

[sero- watery body fluid, -ton- tension, -in substance]

 

spinal nerve

(SPY-nal nerv)

[spin- backbone, -al relating to, nerv- string or nerve]

 

spinal tract

(SPY-nal trakt)

[spin- backbone, -al relating to, trac- course or trail]

 

sulci

(SUL-kye or SUL-kee)

sing., sulcus

[sulcus furrow]

 

sympathetic division

(sim-pah-THET-ik dih-VIZH-un)

[sym- together, -pathe- feel, -ic relating to]

 

sympathetic postganglionic neuron

(sim-pah-THET-ik post-gang-glee-ON-ik NOO-ron)

[sym- together, -pathe- feel, -ic relating to, post- after, -ganglion- knot, -ic relating to, neur- string or nerve, -on unit]

 

sympathetic preganglionic neuron

(sim-pah-THET-ik pree-gang-glee-ON-ik NOO-ron)

[sym- together, -pathe- feel, -ic relating to, pre- before, -ganglion- knot, -ic relating to, neur- string or nerve, -on unit]

 

synapse

(SIN-aps)

[syn- together, -aps- join]

 

synaptic cleft

(sin-AP-tik kleft)

[syn- together, -apt- join, -ic relating to]

 

synaptic knob

(sin-AP-tik nob)

[syn- together, -apt- join, -ic relating to]

 

thalamus

(THAL-ah-mus)

[thalamus inner chamber]

 

tract

(trakt)

[trac- course or trail]

 

ventricle

(VEN-trih-kul)

[ventr- belly, -icle little]

 

visceral effector

(VIS-er-al ee-FEK-tor)

[viscer- internal organ, -al relating to, effect- accomplish, -or agent]

 

white matter

withdrawal reflex

(with-DRAW-ul REE-fleks)

[with- away, -draw- draw, -al relating to, re- again, -flex bend]