Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Nursing Care Models

May 1, 2021

Since the time of Florence Nightingale, nursing and health care technology have continued to change to meet the needs of the patient. Initially, nursing education was like an apprenticeship. Experienced nurses demonstrated skills, and the student nurse practiced these skills until technical competence was achieved. Little emphasis was placed on development of a knowledge base to enable the nurse to solve problems down the road or to adapt the skills learned to various complex situations that would be encountered later. Through research, nursing theorists have developed several models to assist with problem solving and organization of care. Many schools of nursing loosely base their curriculum or philosophy on a specific nursing model to help their students learn about and understand the nursing process (see Chapter 5).

As early as the 1970s, nursing leaders identified the following four major concepts that were the basis for all nursing models of care:

•Nursing: encompasses the roles and actions of the nurse
Patient: the individual who receives the care
Health: the area along the wellness-illness continuum that the patient occupies
•Environment: the setting for the nurse-patient interaction

Several leading nurse theorists have developed nursing models of care, and their work is ongoing. Table 1-2 shows six leading nursing theories that incorporate those basic concepts.