Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

Objectives

April 29, 2021

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Language of science

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Objectives

After you have completed this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Define the terms anatomy, physiology, and pathology.
2. Describe the process used to form scientific theories.
3. List and discuss in order of increasing complexity the levels of organization of the body.
4. Define the terms anatomical position, supine, and prone.
5. List and define the principal directional terms and sections (planes) used in describing the body and the relationship of body parts to one another.
6. Do the following related to body cavities and body regions:
• List and discuss the major cavities of the body and the subdivisions of each.
• List the nine abdominopelvic regions and the abdominopelvic quadrants.
• Discuss and contrast the axial and the appendicular subdivisions of the body. Identify a number of specific anatomical regions in each area.
7. Do the following related to the balance of body functions:
• Define and discuss homeostasis.
• Compare and contrast negative and positive feedback loops and give an example of each in the body.

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abdominal
(ab-DOM-ih-nal)
[abdomin- belly, -al relating to]
abdominal cavity
(ab-DOM-ih-nal KAV-ih-tee)
[abdomin- belly, -al relating to, cav- hollow, -ity state]
abdominopelvic cavity
(ab-DOM-ih-noh-PEL-vik KAV-ih-tee)
[abdomin- belly, -pelv- basin, cav- hollow, -ity state]
abdominopelvic quadrant
(ab-DOM-ih-noh-PEL-vik KWOD-rant)
[abdomin- belly, -pelv- basin, quadran- fourth part]
abdominopelvic region
(ab-DOM-ih-noh-PEL-vik REE-jun)
[abdomin- belly, -pelv- basin, -ic relating to]
anatomical position
(an-ah-TOM-ih-kal poh-ZISH-un)
[ana- apart, -tom- cut, -ical- relating to, posit- place, -tion state]
anatomist
(ah-NAT-oh-mist)
[ana- apart, -tom- cut, -ist agent]
anatomy
(ah-NAT-oh-mee)
[ana- apart, -tom- cut, -y action]
antebrachial
(an-tee-BRAY-kee-al)
[ante- front -brachi- arm, -al relating to]
anterior
(an-TEER-ee-or)
[ante- front, -er- more, -or quality]
anthropology
(an-thro-POL-oh-jee)
[anthropo- human, -log- words (study of), -y activity]
appendicular
(ah-pen-DIK-yoo-lar)
[append- hang upon, -ic- relating to, -ul- little, -ar relating to]
axial
(AK-see-al)
[axi- axis, -al relating to]
axillary
(AK-sil-layr-ee)
[axilla- wing, -ary relating to]
bilateral symmetry
(bye-LAT-er-al SIM-eh-tree)
[bi- two, -later- side, -al relating to, sym- together, -metr- measure, -ry condition of]
brachial
(BRAY-kee-al)
[brachi- arm, -al relating to]
buccal
(BUK-al)
[bucca- cheek, -al relating to]
carpal
(KAR-pul)
[carp- wrist, -al relating to]
cavity
(KAV-ih-tee)
[cav- hollow, -ity state]
cell
(sel)
[cell storeroom]
cephalic
(seh-FAL-ik)
[cephal- head, -ic relating to]
cervical
(SER-vih-kal)
[cervic- neck, -al relating to]
chemical level
(KEM-ih-kal LEV-el)
[chem- alchemy, -ical relating to]
control center
(kon-TROHL SEN-ter)
cranial
(KRAY-nee-al)
[crani- skull, -al relating to]
cranial cavity
(KRAY-nee-al KAV-ih-tee)
[crani- skull, -al relating to, cav- hollow, -ity state]
crural
(KROOR-al)
[crur- leg, -al relating to]
cubital
(KYOO-bih-tal)
[cubit- elbow, -al relating to]
cutaneous
(kyoo-TAYN-ee-us)
[cut- skin, -aneous relating to]
deep
diaphragm
(DYE-ah-fram)
[dia- across, -phrag- enclose]
digital
(DIJ-ih-tal)
[digit- finger or toe, -al relating to]
directional term
(dih-REK-shun-al term)
dissection
(dis-SEK-shun)
[dis- apart, -sect- cut, -tion process]
distal
(DIS-tal)
[dist- distance, -al relating to]
dorsal
(DOR-sal)
[dors- back, -al relating to]
dorsal cavity
(DOR-sal KAV-ih-tee)
[dors- back, -al relating to, cav- hollow, -ity state]
effector
(ef-FEK-tor)
[effect- accomplish, -or agent]
epigastric region
(ep-ih-GAS-trik REE-jun)
[epi- upon, gastr- stomach, -ic relating to]
experimental control
(eks-payr-ih-MENT-el KON-trohl)
[ex- out of, -peri- tested, -ment- thing, -al relating to]
experimentation
(eks-payr-ih-men-TAY-shun)
[ex- out of, -peri- tested, -ment- thing, -tion process]
facial
(FAY-shal)
[faci- face, -al relating to]
feedback loop
(FEED-bak loop)
femoral
(FEM-or-al)
[femor- thigh, -al relating to]
frontal
(FRUN-tal)
[front- forehead, -al relating to]
frontal plane
(FRUN-tal playn)
[front- forehead, -al relating to, plan- flat surface]
gluteal
(GLOO-tee-al)
[glut- buttocks, -al relating to]
homeostasis
(hoh-mee-oh-STAY-sis)
[homeo- same or equal, -stasis standing still]
hypochondriac region
(hye-poh-KON-dree-ak REE-jun)
[hypo- under or below, -chondr- cartilage, -ac relating to]
hypogastric region
(hye-poh-GAST-rik REE-jun)
[hypo- under or below, gastr- stomach, -ic relating to]
hypothesis
(hye-POTH-eh-sis)
pl., hypotheses
(hye-POTH-eh-seez)
[hypo- under or below, -thesis placing or proposition]
iliac region
(IL-ee-ak REE-jun)
[ilia- loin or gut (ileum), -ac relating to]
inferior
(in-FEER-ee-or)
[infer- lower, -or quality]
inguinal
(ING-gwih-nal)
[inguin- groin, -al relating to]
lateral
(LAT-er-al)
[later- side, -al relating to]
law
levels of organization
(LEV-elz ov or-gan-ih-ZAY-shun)
lumbar
(LUM-bar)
[lumb- loin, -ar relating to]
lumbar region
(LUM-bar, REE-jun)
[lumb- loin, -ar relating to]
mammary
(MAM-mah-ree)
[mamma- breast, -ry relating to]
medial
(MEE-dee-al)
[media- middle, -al relating to]
mediastinum
(MEE-dee-as-TYE-num)
[mediastin- midway, -um thing]
microbiome
(my-kroh-BYE-ohm)
[micro- small, -bio- life, -ome entire collection]
midsagittal plane
(mid-SAJ-ih-tal playn)
[mid- middle, -sagitta- arrow, -al relating to]
nasal
(NAY-zal)
[nas- nose, -al relating to]
negative feedback
(NEG-ah-tiv FEED-bak)
[nega- deny, -tive relating to]
oblique plane
(oh-BLEEK playn)
[obliq- slanted, plan- flat surface]
occipital
(awk-SIP-it-al)
[occipit- back of head, -al relating to]
olecranal
(oh-LEK-rah-nal)
[olecran- elbow, -al relating to]
ophthalmic
(of-THAL-mik)
[oph- eye or vision, -thalm- inner chamber, -ic relating to]
oral
(OR-al)
[or- mouth, -al relating to]
orbital
(OR-bih-tal)
[orbi- circle, -al relating to]
organ
(OR-gan)
[organ tool or instrument]
organism
(OR-gah-niz-im)
[organ- instrument, -ism condition]
palmar
(PAHL-mar)
[palm- palm of hand, -ar relating to]
pedal
(PEED-al)
[ped- foot, -al relating to]
pelvic
(PEL-vik)
[pelvi- basin, -ic relating to]
pelvic cavity
(PEL-vik KAV-ih-tee)
[pelvi- basin, -ic relating to, cav- hollow, -ity state]
perineal
(payr-ih-NEE-al)
[peri- around, -ine- excrete (perineum), -al relating to]
physiology
(fiz-ee-OL-oh-jee)
[physio- nature (function), -o- combining vowel, -log- words (study of), -y activity]
plane
(playn)
[plan- flat surface]
plantar
(PLAN-tar)
[planta- sole of foot, -ar relating to]
pleural
(PLOOR-al)
[pleura- rib, -al relating to]
pleural cavity
(PLOOR-al KAV-ih-tee)
[pleura- rib, -al relating to, cav- hollow, -ity state]
popliteal
(pop-lih-TEE-al)
[poplit- back of knee, -al relating to]
positive feedback
(POZ-it-iv FEED-bak)
[posit- to place or amplify, -tive relating to]
posterior
(pohs-TEER-ee-or)
[poster- behind, -or quality]
prone
[prone lying face down]
proximal
(PROK-sih-mal)
[proxima- near, -al relating to]
sagittal plane
(SAJ-ih-tal playn)
[sagitta- arrow, -al relating to, plan- flat surface]
scientific method
(sye-en-TIF-ik METH-od)
section
(SEK-shun)
[sect- cut, -ion process or state]
sensor
(SEN-sor)
[sens- feel, -or relating to]
spinal cavity
(SPY-nal KAV-ih-tee)
[spin- backbone, -al relating to, cav- hollow, -ity state]
superficial
(soo-per-FISH-al)
[super- over or above, -fici- face, -al relating to]
superior
(soo-PEER-ee-or)
[super- over or above, -or quality]
supine
(SOO-pyne)
[supin- lying on the back]
supraclavicular
(soo-prah-klah-VIK-yoo-lar)
[supra- above or over, -clavi- key, -ul- little, -ar relating to]
system
(SIS-tem)
[sy(n)- together, -stem standing]
tarsal
(TAR-sal)
[tars- ankle, -al relating to]
temporal
(TEM-poh-ral)
[tempora- temple (of head), -al relating to]
theory
(THEE-ah-ree)
[theor- look at, -y act of]
thoracic
(thoh-RAS-ik)
[thorac- chest (thorax), -ic relating to]
thoracic cavity
(thoh-RAS-ik KAV-ih-tee)
[thorac- chest (thorax), -ic relating to, cav- hollow, -ity state]
tissue
(TISH-yoo)
[tissu- fabric]
transverse plane
(TRANS-vers playn)
[trans- across or through, -vers turn, plan- flat surface]
umbilical
(um-BIL-ih-kul)
[umbilic- navel, -al relating to]
ventral
(VEN-tral)
[ventr- belly, -al relating to]
ventral cavity
(VEN-tral KAV-ih-tee)
[ventr- belly, -al relating to, cav- hollow, -ity state]
volar
(VOH-lar)
[vola- hollow of hand, -ar relating to]
zygomatic
(zye-goh-MAT-ik)
[zygo- union or yoke, -ic relating to][/fusion_toggle][/fusion_accordion][/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container][fusion_builder_container type=”flex” hundred_percent=”no” hundred_percent_height=”no” min_height=”” hundred_percent_height_scroll=”no” align_content=”stretch” flex_align_items=”flex-start” flex_justify_content=”flex-start” flex_column_spacing=”” hundred_percent_height_center_content=”yes” equal_height_columns=”no” container_tag=”div” menu_anchor=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” status=”published” publish_date=”” class=”” id=”” spacing_medium=”” margin_top_medium=”” margin_bottom_medium=”” spacing_small=”” margin_top_small=”” margin_bottom_small=”” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=”” padding_dimensions_medium=”” padding_top_medium=”” padding_right_medium=”” padding_bottom_medium=”” padding_left_medium=”” padding_dimensions_small=”” padding_top_small=”” padding_right_small=”” padding_bottom_small=”” 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Introduction

There are many wonders in our world, but none is more wondrous than the human body. This is a textbook about that incomparable structure. It deals with two very distinct and yet interrelated sciences: anatomy and physiology.
As a science, anatomy is often defined as the study of the structure of an organism and the relationships of its parts. The word anatomy is derived from two word parts that mean “cutting apart.” Anatomists learn about the structure of the human body by cutting it apart. This process, called dissection, is still the principal technique used to isolate and study the structural components or parts of the human body.
Physiology, on the other hand, is the study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. Physiologists use scientific experimentation to tease out how each activity of the body works, how it is regulated, and how it fits into the complex, coordinated operation of the whole human organism.
In the chapters that follow, you will see again and again that anatomical parts have structures exactly suited to perform specific functions. Each has a particular size, shape, form, or position in the body related directly to its ability to perform a unique and specialized activity. This principle—that structure fits function—is the key to understanding all of human biology.
Although an understanding of the normal structure and function of the body is important, it is also important to know the mechanisms of disease. Disease conditions result from abnormalities of body structure or function that prevent the body from maintaining the internal stability that keeps us alive and healthy. Pathology, the scientific study of disease, uses principles of anatomy and physiology to determine the nature of particular diseases. The term pathology comes from pathos, the Greek word for “disease.” Chapter 6 provides an overview of the basic mechanisms of disease, such as infection and cancer.
Throughout the rest of this textbook, explanations of normal structure and function are supplemented by discussions of related disease processes. By knowing the structure and function of the healthy body, you will be better prepared to understand what can go wrong to cause disease. At the same time, having knowledge of disease states will enhance your understanding of normal structure and function.

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