Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress


April 11, 2024

calcium    A naturally occurring element that is necessary for many body functions, including strong bones and teeth, proper blood clotting, nerve conduction, and muscle contractions.
cataract    Clouding of the lens, leading to decreased vision.
diabetic retinopathy (die ah BET ik reh tin OP ah thee)    Damages the blood vessels in the retina, leading to loss of vision and eventual blindness.
diffuse    To spread, scatter, disperse, or move.
electrolyte (ee LEK troe lite)    A chemical substance that separates into ions in solution (water) and is capable of conducting an electric current. Electrolytes found in body fluids include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphate.
exocrine    A glandular secretion released through a duct.
fatty acids    Result when fats are broken down; used by the body for energy and tissue development.
glaucoma (glou KOE mah)    Increase in the fluid pressure in the eye; can lead to blindness if not treated.
homeostasis (hoe mee oh STAY sis)    The internal environment of the body that is compatible with life. A steady state that is created by all the body systems working together to provide a consistent and unvarying internal environment.
libido    Sexual drive or instinct.
mediastinum (mee dee AH sti nuhm)    The space in the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs, containing the heart, trachea, and esophagus.
negative feedback loop    A process in which a change from the normal ranges causes a response that opposes or decreases the change, thus helping maintain homeostasis.
nucleus    A specialized organelle of a cell that is encased in a membrane and directs growth, metabolism, and reproduction of the cell.
organelle    A structure within a cell that performs a specific function.
positive feedback loop    A process in which a change causes a response that enhances that change.
preeclampsia (pree ih KLAMP see ah)    A form of toxemia during pregnancy, characterized by high blood pressure, fluid retention, and protein in the urine. May progress to eclampsia.
receptors    Structures or sites on or in a cell that bind with substances such as hormones, antigens, or drugs.
target cell    A cell selectively affected by a specific agent, such as a drug, hormone, or virus.
water deprivation test    A test to measure the amount and concentration of urine produced when water is withheld from a patient for a period of time.