Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress


April 11, 2024

anaphylaxis    A rapidly progressing, life-threatening allergic reaction; characterized by hives, swelling of the mouth and airway, difficulty breathing, wheezing, and loss of consciousness.
antibodies    Proteins produced by cells in the immune system in response to a specific antigen. Work to destroy or weaken a specific antigen.
antigens    Substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nonliving substances, including drugs, chemicals, toxins, and foreign particles (e.g., wood splinters).
arteriosclerosis    A disease in which the arterial walls become thickened and lose their elasticity.
atheroma (ath uh ROH mah)    A waxy lesion made up of cholesterol, fat, calcium, cells, and other substances, that builds up on the inner wall of an artery.
bilirubin (bil i ROO bin)    A reddish yellow pigment that results from the breakdown of red blood cells in the liver.
cardiac defibrillator    An external or implantable device that provides an electric shock to the heart to restore a normal sinus rhythm.
constrict    To contract or shrink.
cytoplasm    A jelly-like substance that surrounds the nucleus and fills the cells. Organelles (structures in the cell) are suspended in the cytoplasm.
deoxygenated    Oxygen deficient; oxygen was removed.
ectopic pregnancy    A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus (e.g., fallopian tubes).
electrocardiography    The recording of electrical impulses of the heart as wave deflections on an instrument called an electrocardiograph. The record, or recording, is called an electrocardiogram.
embolus (EM boh lus)    An air bubble, blood clot, or foreign body that travels through the bloodstream and blocks a blood vessel.
enzymes    Special proteins that speed up a chemical reaction in the body.
filamentous (fil ah MEN tuhs)    Composed of or containing filaments or strands of a substance.
glucose    A simple sugar that is absorbed by the intestines and found in the blood. It is used by cells for energy, and the extra is stored in the liver as glycogen.
hematopoiesis    The formation of blood cells.
incompetent valves    Valves that do not close completely and allow blood to leak backward into the prior chamber; also called “leaky valves.”
infarction (in FARK shuhn)    Tissue death.
insufficiency    Also called regurgitation or incompetence; the valve does not close completely, and blood leaks backward across the valve into the prior chamber.
mediastinum (mee dee uh STY num)    The space in the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs, containing the heart, trachea, and esophagus.
orthostatic (postural) hypotension    A temporary fall in blood pressure that occurs when a person rapidly changes from a recumbent position to a standing position.
pitting edema    Excessive fluid in the intercellular spaces in the tissue; when external pressure (e.g., socks, finger pressure) is relieved, a depression is seen in the tissue.
polycythemia (pol ee sie THEE mee ah)    A condition caused by an abnormally large number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the blood.
purpura    A condition characterized by hemorrhages in the tissues, causing the appearance of purplish spots.
solvent    A liquid that can dissolve other substances.
stem cells    Undifferentiated cells that can become specialized cells in the body.
stenosis (sten OH sis)    Occurs when the heart valve flaps are stiff or fused together, thus narrowing the valve.
syncope (SING kuh pee)    Fainting or loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain.
thrombus (THRAHM bus)    A blood clot that blocks the flow of blood.
valvulitis    An inflammatory condition of a valve that results in valve stenosis and obstructed blood flow; caused most commonly by rheumatic fever, bacterial endocarditis, or syphilis.
viscosity    Resistance to flow; the thicker the liquid, the higher the viscosity.
whole blood    Plasma and the formed elements of blood in a free-flowing liquid form.