Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress


April 11, 2024

afferent (AF fur ent)    Pertains to carrying toward a structure.
anticoagulant (an tee koe AG yoo lant)    A substance (i.e., medication or chemical) that prevents the clotting of blood.
antihyperlipidemic (an tie hie per lip i DEE mik)    A substance (i.e., medication) that lowers the lipid levels in the blood.
antihypertensive    A drug that reduces high blood pressure.
arterioles (ar TEER ee ohlz)    Small arteries.
arteriovenous graft (ahr teer ee oh VEE nuhs)    A synthetic tube that connects an artery to a vein; also called an AV graft.
arteriovenous fistula    An abnormal joining of an artery and a vein.
calculi (KAL kyuh lie)    Stones formed in the kidneys, gallbladder, and other parts of the body.
catheter    A hollow, flexible tube that can be inserted into a vessel, organ, or cavity of the body to withdraw or instill fluid, monitor information, and visualize a vessel or cavity.
corticosteroids    A group of steroid hormones produced in the body or given as a medication; some have metabolic functions, and others reduce tissue inflammation. Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids are two types.
diuretic    A substance (i.e., medication) that increases the amount of urine produced.
efferent (EF fur ent)    Pertains to carrying away from a structure.
erythropoietin (eh rith roh POY eh tin)    A hormone that is produced by the kidney cells and travels to the bone marrow to stimulate red blood cell formation.
filtrate    Fluid and substances that are filtered out of the blood in the Bowman capsule.
gamete (GAM eet)    A mature sexual reproductive cell; spermatozoon or ovum.
gonad (GOH nads)    Organs that produce sex cells in both males and females.
hyperlipidemia (hie per lip i DEE mee ah)    An elevated level of lipids in the blood.
hypoalbuminemia (hie poh al byoo mi NEE mee ah)    A decreased level of albumin (protein) in the blood.
in vitro fertilization    An assisted reproductive technology procedure that involves removing mature eggs from the ovaries and fertilizing the eggs with sperm outside of the body. The fertilized eggs are then transferred to the uterus.
intermittent    Occurring in intervals.
interstitial (in ter STISH uhl)    Between the cells.
interstitial cells    Testosterone-secreting cells of testes that are found in the spaces between the seminiferous tubules.
intravenous (IV)    Through a vein; fluids and medications can be given through a vein.
metabolites (meh TAB uh lites)    By-products of drug metabolism.
neuropathy (nu ROP a thee)    A nervous system disorder of the peripheral nerves that causes discomfort, numbness, and weakness, especially in the extremities.
peritoneum (per i tuh NEE um)    A serous membrane lining of the abdominal cavity, which folds inward to enclose the viscera (internal organs).
peritubular capillaries (per i TOO bu lar)    Blood capillaries surrounding the proximal and distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys.
permeability    A quality or characteristic of a material that allows another substance to pass through it.
puberty (PYOO bur tee)    The stage of life in which males and females become functionally capable of sexual reproduction.
residual urine    Urine that remains in the bladder after micturition or urination.
rugae (ROO gay)    Folds in the wall of the organ; when the organ (e.g., stomach, bladder, uterus) fills or needs to expand, the rugae unfold.
septicemia (sep ti SEE mee ah)    A systemic infection involving pathologic microbes in the blood as a result of an infection that has spread from elsewhere in the body.
spermatozoa (singular, spermatozoon) (spur mat ah ZOH ah)    Mature male reproductive cells.
stoma (STOH mah)    A temporary or permanent surgically created opening used for drainage (i.e., urine, stool).
stretch receptor    A sensory nerve ending that responds to a stretch stimulus.
testis (plural, testes) (TES tis)    The male gonad, also called a testicle (TES ti kul).
testosterone (tess TOS tuh rohn)    Male sex hormone produced by the interstitial cells in the testes.
transitional epithelium    A type of cell found in the lining of hollow organs. It has the ability to stretch with the contraction and distention of the organ.
urostomy (yoo ROS te mee)    A surgically created opening on the abdominal wall used to drain urine.
vascular access    A surgical procedure that creates a vein to remove and return blood during a hemodialysis procedure.
venule (VEN yuhl)    A very small vein.