Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress


April 11, 2024

5% sheep’s blood agar plate (BAP)    A solid agar medium that contains nutrients and 5% washed sheep’s blood. The blood is added as an extra nutrient source for bacteria.
acute phase    The phase during which rapid multiplication of the pathogen takes place. Symptoms are very distinct. A strong response of the immune system takes place during this stage.
antibiotic    A substance or medication that can destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria.
antibody    A protein substance produced in the blood or tissues in response to a specific antigen; antibodies destroy or weaken the antigen. Part of the immune system.
antigen    A substance that stimulates the production of an antibody when introduced into the body. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances.
antiseptic    Substances that inhibit the growth of microorganisms on living tissue (e.g., alcohol and povidone-iodine [Betadine]); they are used to cleanse the skin, wounds, and so on.
arthropod    Any animal that lacks a spine, such as insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and others.
asexual    Describes reproduction that does not involve the fusion of male and female sex cells.
Bacteria microorganisms that are single celled, lack a nucleus, reproduce asexually, or can form spores. Some can cause disease. The most abundant life form on earth.
binary fission    Asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms during which one cell divides into two daughter cells.
binomial    A name consisting of a generic and a specific term.
blood agar plate (BAP)    A solid agar medium that contains nutrients and 5% washed sheep’s blood. The blood is added as an extra nutrient source for bacteria.
Bronchiolitis occurs when the small airways of the lungs become inflamed because of a viral infection.
colony    A discrete group of organisms, such as a group of bacteria, growing on a solid nutrient surface.
convalescent stage    The phase during which the host recovers gradually and returns to baseline or normal health.
decolorizer    A liquid that has the ability to wash out color.
diluent    (DIL yoo uh nt) A liquid substance that dilutes or lessens the strength of a solution or mixture.
endospore    An inactive form of certain bacteria that can withstand poor environmental conditions. When conditions improve, the bacteria become functional again.
eukaryote    (yoo KAR ee oht) Any single-celled or multicellular organism that has genetic material contained in a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.
extract    A certain substance that is taken out of a group or solution and is in a concentrated form.
extraction    A process by which a specific substance is separated from a group or solution.
flagella    A long, whiplike outgrowth from a cell that helps the cell move.
fomite    Objects that are likely to carry infectious organisms.
fungi    Single-celled organisms, including mushrooms, molds, mildew, smuts, rusts, and yeasts, and classified in the kingdom Fungi.
guaiac fecal occult blood test    A test for fecal occult blood where glacial acetic acid and guaiac are mixed with the specimen.
healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)    Infections that patients acquire while receiving treatment for other conditions within a healthcare setting (e.g., ambulatory care, long-term care, or rehabilitation facility).
hemoccult test    A modified guaiac test using filter paper impregnated with guaiacum that turns blue if occult blood is present.
heterophile antibody    An antibody that has an affinity for an antigen other than the specific antigen that stimulated its production.
infectious agents    Living and nonliving pathogens—such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, parasites, helminths, and prions—that can cause disease.
in vitro    Latin term meaning “in glass” and commonly known as “in the laboratory.”
macromolecules    Molecules needed for metabolism: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, amino acids, and nucleic acids.
microorganism    Any living organism—such as bacterium, protozoan, fungi, parasite, or helminth—of microscopic size. Some definitions include viruses, which are not alive.
mold    Growth of tiny fungi forming on a substance. Often looks downy or furry and is associated with dampness or decay.
molecule    The simplest unit of a chemical compound that can exist, consisting of two or more atoms held together with chemical bonds.
mordant    Having the ability to fix or set colors.
nasal wash    Also called a nasal aspirate. A syringe is used to gently squirt a small amount of sterile saline into the nose, and the resulting fluid is collected into a cup (for a wash). Or after the saline is squirted into the nose, gentle suction is applied (for the aspirate).
nomenclature    (NOH muh n kley cher) A system of names or terms, used in science and art to categorize items.
normal flora    A microorganism (usually a bacterium or yeast) that lives on or in the body. A normal microscopic resident of the body.
occult    Not visibly apparent or seen.
organelles    Structures inside a cell that perform specific functions.
parasitic    Pertaining to a parasite. (An organism that lives on or in another organism, known as the host. Benefits from the host; the host does not benefit from the parasite.)
pathogen    A disease-causing organism or agent.
pneumonia    Inflammation of the lungs with congestion of the air sacs (alveoli). Can be caused by a bacterium or virus.
prokaryote    (proh KAR ee ote) Any organism that is made up of at least one cell and has genetic material that is not enclosed in a nucleus. Bacteria are prokaryotes, primitive organisms.
protozoa   (pro tuh ZOH ah) Single-celled organisms that are the most primitive form of animal life. Most are microscopic. Examples are amoebas, ciliates, flagellates, and sporozoans.
pure culture    The growth of only one microorganism in a culture or on a nutrient surface.
serologic    Pertaining to the science involving the immune properties and actions of serum.
sputum    Thick mucus often referred to as phlegm. It is coughed up from the lungs; not saliva that originates in the mouth.
stains    Reagents or dyes used to prepare specimens for microscopic examination.
streaked for isolation    To have produced isolated colonies of an organism on an agar plate. Using an inoculating loop, pick one colony and methodically spread it out onto solid nutrient media. The goal is to have colonies that are separate from other colonies.
subcultured   Occurs when an organism (a bacterium) has been cultivated again on a new nutrient surface.
tissue culture    The technique or process of keeping tissue alive and growing in a culture medium.
titer    The lowest concentration of a serum solution containing a specific antibody where the antibody is still able to neutralize (or precipitate) an antigen.
transport medium    A medium used to keep an organism alive during transport to the laboratory.
vector    Arthropod (mosquito, tick, flea) that carries disease and transmits to another organism through a blood meal.
viable    Able to live and grow.
wet mount    A glass slide that holds a specimen suspended in a drop of liquid for microscopic examination.
yeast    Any various single-celled fungi, which reproduce by budding and are able to ferment sugars.